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Geography
Sources:
CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html,

Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
29 30 S, 28 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 30,355 sq km
land: 30,355 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 909 km
border countries: South Africa 909 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly highland with plateaus, hills, and mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: junction of the Orange and Makhaleng Rivers 1,400 m
highest point: Thabana Ntlenyana 3,482 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
water, agricultural and grazing land, diamonds, sand, clay, building stone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 10.87%
permanent crops: 0.13%
other: 89% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
30 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, and soil exhaustion; desertification; Highlands Water Project controls, stores, and redirects water to South Africa
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked, completely surrounded by South Africa; mountainous, more than 80% of the country is 1,800 meters above sea level

People
Sources:
CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html,

Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,125,262
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 35.7% (male 382,308/female 377,303)
15-64 years: 59.3% (male 613,979/female 645,818)
65 years and over: 5% (male 42,621/female 63,233) (2007 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 21.1 years
male: 20.4 years
female: 21.7 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.144% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.72 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.49 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.013 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.951 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.674 male(s)/female
total population: 0.956 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 79.85 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 84.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 75.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 39.97 years
male: 40.73 years
female: 39.18 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.21 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
320,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)
adjective: Basotho
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Sotho 99.7%, Europeans, Asians, and other 0.3%,
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 80%, indigenous beliefs 20%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Sesotho (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 84.8%
male: 74.5%
female: 94.5% (2003 est.)

Government
Sources:
CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html,

Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Lesotho
conventional short form: Lesotho
local long form: Kingdom of Lesotho
local short form: Lesotho
former: Basutoland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
name: Maseru
geographic coordinates: 29 28 S, 27 30 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohale's Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qacha's Nek, Quthing, Thaba-Tseka
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
4 October 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 4 October (1966)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
2 April 1993
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995 while his father was in exile
head of government: Prime Minister Pakalitha MOSISILI (since 23 May 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: none - according to the constitution, the leader of the majority party in the Assembly automatically becomes prime minister; the monarch is hereditary, but, under the terms of the constitution, that came into effect after the March 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to depose the monarch, determine who is next in the line of succession, or who shall serve as regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (33 members - 22 principal chiefs and 11 other members appointed by the ruling party) and the Assembly (120 seats, 80 by popular vote and 40 by proportional vote; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
elections: last held 17 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LCD 61, NIP 21, ABC 17, LWP 10, ACP 4, BNP 3, other 4
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court (chief justice appointed by the monarch acting on the advice of the Prime Minister); Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts; customary or traditional court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance of Congress Parties or ACP; All Basotho Convention or ABC [Thomas THABANE]; Basotholand African Congress or BAC [Khauhelo RALITAPOLE]; Basotho Congress Party or BCP [Ntsukunyane MPHANYA]; Basotho National Party or BNP [Maj. Gen. Justin Metsing LEKHANYA]; Kopanang Basotho Party or KPB [Pheelo MOSALA]; Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD (the governing party) [Pakalitha MOSISILI]; Lesotho Education Party or LEP [Thabo PITSO]; Lesotho Workers Party or LWP [Macaefa BILLY]; Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP [Vincent MALEBO]; National Independent Party or NIP [Anthony MANYELI]; New Lesotho Freedom Party or NLFP [Manapo MAJARA]; Popular Front for Democracy or PFD [Lekhetho RAKUOANE]; Sefate Democratic Union or SDU [Bofihla NKUEBE]; Social Democratic Party of SDP [Masitise SELESO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Molelekeng E. RAPOLAKI
chancery: 2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-5533 through 5536
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6815
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador June Carter PERRY
embassy: 254 Kingsway, Maseru West (Consular Section)
mailing address: P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100, Lesotho
telephone: [266] 22 312666
FAX: [266] 22 310116
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal stripes of blue (top), white, and green in the proportions of 3:4:3; the colors represent rain, peace, and prosperity respectively; centered in the white stripe is a black Basotho hat representing the indigenous people; the flag was unfurled in October 2006 to celebrate 40 years of independence

Economy
Sources:
CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html,

Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho relies on remittances from miners employed in South Africa and customs duties from the Southern Africa Customs Union for the majority of government revenue. However, the government has recently strengthened its tax system to reduce dependency on customs duties. Completion of a major hydropower facility in January 1998 now permits the sale of water to South Africa and also generates royalties for Lesotho. Lesotho produces about 90% of its own electrical power needs. As the number of mineworkers has declined steadily over the past several years, a small manufacturing base has developed based on farm products that support the milling, canning, leather, and jute industries, as well as a rapidly expanding apparel-assembly sector. The latter has grown significantly mainly due to Lesotho qualifying for the trade benefits contained in the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act. The economy is still primarily based on subsistence agriculture, especially livestock, although drought has decreased agricultural activity. The extreme inequality in the distribution of income remains a major drawback. Lesotho has signed an Interim Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.195 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$1.419 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.7% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2,600 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 16.1%
industry: 43%
services: 40.9% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
838,000 (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 86% of resident population engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 35% of the active male wage earners work in South Africa
industry and services: 14%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
45% (2002)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
49% (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 0.9%
highest 10%: 43.4%
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
63.2 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
32% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $778.9 million
expenditures: $734.7 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley; livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food, beverages, textiles, apparel assembly, handicrafts, construction, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.5% (1999)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
250 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by South Africa (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
244.5 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
12 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by South Africa (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,400 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$75.44 million (2006 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$779.1 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
manufactures 75% (clothing, footwear, road vehicles), wool and mohair, food and live animals (2000)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 83.8%, Belgium 12.7%, Canada 2.4% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.401 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
food; building materials, vehicles, machinery, medicines, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Hong Kong 29.6%, China 24%, Taiwan 22.3%, Germany 5.7%, India 5.5% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$528.2 million (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$735 million (2002)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$41.5 million (2000)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
loti (LSL); South African rand (ZAR)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
maloti per US dollar - 6.85 (2006), 6.3593 (2005), 6.4597 (2004), 7.5648 (2003), 10.541 (2002)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March

Communications
Sources:
CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html,

Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
48,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
245,100 (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: rudimentary system
domestic: consists of a modest but growing number of landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a minor radiotelephone communication system; a cellular mobile telephone system is growing
international: country code - 266; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2000)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ls
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
168 (2006)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
43,000 (2005)

Transportation
Sources:
CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html,

Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 21 (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5,940 km
paved: 1,087 km
unpaved: 4,853 km (1999)

Military
Sources:
CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html,

Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Lesotho Defense Force (LDF): Army and Air Wing
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (est.); no conscription (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 428,982
females age 18-49: 440,102 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 180,797
females age 18-49: 160,681 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.6% (2006)
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
the Lesotho Government in 1999 began an open debate on the future structure, size, and role of the armed forces, especially considering the Lesotho Defense Force's (LDF) history of intervening in political affairs

Le top des actualitťs des actualitťs: Lesotho